What is the heat pump water heater and how it works

Choosing a heat pump water heater - or more precisely heat pump water heater - is extremely efficient, especially if you want to replace a traditional electric boiler or a gas boiler. Among the main advantages there is a lower energy consumption but also a greater attention to the environment, since the heat pump does not need fossil fuels to function. Let's see together what it is, how it works and how to install the heat pump water heater.

What is a heat pump water heater?

A heat pump water heater consists of a system that collects thermal energy from the outside air and uses it to heat the water, there is also a hot water accumulator, in order to always have it available. From an aesthetic point of view we are talking about a system very similar to the traditional boiler or water heater, the advantages are all hidden in the operating modes. There are many models that provide functions that can be activated remotely that allow you to optimize its operation and adapt it to your needs.

How does the heat pump electric water heater work?

The heat pump consists of a closed circuit whose fundamental components are: compressor, condenser, expansion valve and evaporator. The circuit is crossed by a coolant, which is essential for the operation of the entire system. The system takes the heat from the air and transfers it to the sanitary water, up to typically bringing it to a maximum of 60° C. The hot water is then stored in the accumulator, ready to be used by the family.

It uses electricity exclusively to suck in the outside air and to run the compressor; in a traditional water heater, on the other hand, electricity is used precisely to produce heat, so much more is needed.

Consumption of a heat pump water heater

A heat pump water heater is significantly more efficient than a natural gas boiler. The performance of this device is summarized by an indicator called COP, or Coefficient of Performance. This value indicates the ratio between the thermal energy supplied to the environment and the electricity consumed, and for a class A + appliance it is higher than 2.6. This means that for every kWh of electricity absorbed, the heat pump water heater is able to produce 2.6 kWh of thermal energy useful for heating the water, while a natural gas boiler returns only 0.9 kWh of thermal energy to for each kWh of energy absorbed. Therefore this technology allows a reduction of about 3 times of the energy requirement, reducing consumption by 65%.

Photovoltaic and solar thermal to heat water

Couple the heat pump water heater with a photovoltaic system or with the balcony solar panels allows you to use the electricity produced and therefore to reduce or cancel the purchase of electricity from your supplier, with clear benefits in the bill. In addition, solar panels can also be used to produce hot water with solutions solar thermal suitable for all needs.

Where to install heat pump water heater?

This product can be installed in the bathroom or, where available, in a technical room. Many of these appliances include an outdoor unit, very similar to that of air conditioners, but there are also monobloc versions on the market. The choice on the type of product depends on several factors, first of all the number of people who live in the house and the temperature conditions of their geographical area.

The environmental benefits

The heat pump water heater is powered only by electricity, therefore in the case of switching from a gas heating system to a heat pump one, a reduction in CO2 can be obtained equal to that absorbed by 33 trees in a year.

State incentives for heat pump water heaters

The installation of the heat pump water heater can give the right to state incentives, the so-called Ecobonus, which guarantees a tax deduction of 65% of the expenses incurred, if it is configured as an energy requalification intervention. For details on the minimum requirements, you can consult the website of Revenue Agencies.

As an alternative to the deduction, you can take advantage of the discount on the invoice or credit transfer.

Electrification of consumption

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